Climate Science Glossary

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Medieval Recipes

While the Medieval Warm Period saw unusually warm temperatures in some regions, globally the planet was cooler than current conditions. Using this as proof to say that we cannot be causing current warming is a faulty notion based upon rhetoric rather than science. So what are the holes in this line of thinking? Firstly, evidence suggests that the Medieval Warm Period may have been warmer than today in many parts of the globe such as in the North Atlantic.

This warming thereby allowed Vikings to travel further north than had been previously possible because of reductions in sea ice and land ice in the Arctic.

The Lyghfield bible – named for a monk at the cathedral who once owned it – is the only complete bible and the finest illuminated book known to have survived from the medieval collection.

Hard copies of this issue are winging their way to members now and should arrive in mid-December. Here Stuart Brookes, Catharina Tente and Sara Prata, put forward a new comparative methodology for exploring the form and development of rock-cut cemeteries, which are a well-known class of funerary sites, generally recognised for their paucity of furnishings and dating evidence. These authors point to comparative arrangements and developments on cemeteries in England, and the potential of this information to aid to interpretation in Portugal.

Visual Graph Analysis is used in an innovative study of clusters, accessibility, visibility and prominence at the necropolis, producing valuable results and proving that such an approach can draw out further information. In the next article, attention turns to Ireland, in a broad study of jet and jet-like jewellery production in the first millennium AD. Paul Stevens reveals the different scales of indigenous production of these luxury items in early medieval Ireland, and puts forward evidence of the management of materials, manufacture and goods by elites and elite centres, arguing for regional centres of production.

Skre points to the diverse treatment of metal and bullion as a means of payment in early medieval society and the need to consider its use in customary and symbolic payments. Gabor Thomas and colleagues, present a case-study led assessment of religious transformation in the long term from a cross-cultural perspective. In an examination of pagan, Christian, Islamic and Jewish religions in medieval Europe, the authors move away from national dialogues, instead showing how religious transformation was negotiated by people in terms of tempo and trajectory, and pointing to shared themes of hybridity and resilience.

Staying with Christianity the journal moves next to Britain and Lincolnshire in a detailed and exceptionally well-illustrated article, Paul Everson and David Stocker, unfold the complex life of the Louth Cross from Lincolnshire.

Mardi Gras History

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This article is over 3 months old Canterbury Cathedral bought the Lyghfield bible. Handout A 13th century bible, one of a handful of books which survived intact when the library of Canterbury Cathedral was broken up at the time of the Reformation, is back in the building after almost years. The Lyghfield bible — named for a monk at the cathedral who once owned it — is the only complete bible and the finest illuminated book known to have survived from the medieval collection.

The library of some 30, volumes was once one of the greatest treasures of the cathedral, but when the monastic community was broken up by Henry VIII in the 16th century the books were scattered. The cathedral plans to put the bible on display in a new exhibition area. The book is pocket-sized, which may have saved it when others were ripped apart for their precious bindings or beautiful illuminations. It was written on such fine and costly vellum that the little volume, probably made in Paris, holds pages.

Cressida Williams, head of the cathedral archives, said: The bible bears witness to the upheavals of the Reformation, a time which defined what the cathedral is today, and will have a key role in telling visitors our story.

Rental of the medieval Keep

Axes and Swords for Beheading Beheading was a form of execution rather than a form of torture, but it could form part of a programme of torture. For example beheading was a part of the process of drawing, hanging, and quartering. Decapitation has been used as a form of capital punishment for millennia. The terms “capital offence”, “capital crime”, “capital punishment,” derive from the word caput, Latin for “head”, referring to the punishment for serious offences involving the forfeiture of the head.

Decapitation by sword or axe was considered the “honourable” way to die for a noble, who, being a warrior, could often expect to die by the sword in any event. In England it was considered a privilege of noblemen and noblewomen to be beheaded.

The modern salute, i.e. raising you hand to your forehead, was introduced by medieval knights. But, it was not common to commoners. Kings and nobles were greeted with a bow. Depending on the difference in status between the greeted and the greeter.

A Medieval Love Affair There is a kind of magic that surrounds the figure of King Arthur — everyone thinks of him as the man who pulled a sword from the stone, who rose from a beggar to a King, who had a round table surrounded with knights and even a wizard as at his disposal. They imagine him standing tall and proud with his legendary sword, Excalibur at his side and his faithful knight, Lancelot, at his back.

The stories vary slightly depending upon which story one is hearing, but the gist of it is always the same. The son of a King and Queen himself, he was supposedly raised by Vivienne of the Lake. Soon after he set off on an adventure of his own, he asked Guinevere to name him her knight and champion, which she did. After many battles and adventures, he returned to Camelot.

He made himself invaluable to King Arthur, fighting many battles by his side and earning his trust and respect. When Lancelot revealed his love to Guinevere, she revealed that she was in love with him as well. The pair then began a passionate, almost obsession-like affair that lasted for years, all without King Arthur knowing. Stories differ on what happens when Arthur finds out except to say that Guinevere spends her life in a convent and Lancelot leaves the kingdom. The scandalous nature of their affair became a catalyst for the events that would destroy the fellowship between the Knights of the Round Table.

There are some differences between the tales.

Learn medieval Latin

Historical[ edit ] The See of Canterbury was founded in by St. Christianity was carried to England by the Romans and spread throughout Britain, until the 5th century, when it waned through the departure of the Romans and the invasion by Saxons. In Pope Gregory sent Augustine as a missionary from Rome to Canterbury where a church was established and run initially by secular canons, then Benedictine monks from the late Saxon period until

Dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries, the collection comprises of 5 Viking-era hogback stones bearing animal carvings at the ends, carved crosses and cross shafts. The Govan Sarcophagus. A sandstone tomb thought to date from the 9th century A.D.

Blog Medieval Recipes Food is a defining element of any culture, in any period of history and medieval recipes are a great example of that. Recipes reflect the true, prevailing tastes and culture of people, both rich and poor, who lived in medieval times. The ingredients available to people then for cooking, the climate in which they were produced and the social hierarchy all combined to produce a unique style of cookery.

Click here to read how medieval food was regarded — a fascinating study. Looking back through history, both before and after the medieval era, the food people ate offers us a greater understanding of they lived — from Roman times to Renaissance Europe. However, we feel that there is perhaps no more fascinating a time in history than medieval Europe. A time when the colour and romanticism of chivalric tales is matched by that of the elaborate and colourful feasts of lavish banquets. So it is that recipes have prevailed from that time, passing down through generations and offering us an insight into the lives of our ancestors.

The cookery of medieval England forms the core foundation of our research into the subject and also how food was regarded, with the majority of dishes dating from to the advent of the Tudor dynasty in England. A Passion This website has been developed through a passion for 2 things: We hope it will be a useful and enjoyable resource for anyone interested in cookery from the medieval period.

Medieval dating customs

The Govan Ferry c. On the left is the spire of Govan Old Church. Glasgow City Council Museums. Following an unrelenting period of economic hardship, this small burgh may seem a forgotten relic of the industrial age, but is surprisingly rich in history. Originally part of the early medieval Kingdom of Strathclyde, the current site of Govan Old Parish Church was the burial place of Kings. From the 5th century A.

The DEEDS project and the development of a computerised methodology for dating undated English private charters of the 12th and 13th centuries, Michael Gervers– an overview of the process of dating undated medieval charters – latest results and future development, Rodolfo Fiallos– dating the charters of the smaller religious houses in Suffolk.

This post will examine the contents of the Portable Antiquities Scheme database PASd from the perspective of temporal information relating to the finds records. The key fields containing finds record dating information in the PASd are: Note that, unlike for other object types, for single finds of coins the fromdate and todate fields tend to give either the earliest and latest probable date the coin was minted based on numismatic information, or less commonly the regnal years of the ruler under whom the it was struck.

Also, the vast majority of non-numismatic finds have both a fromdate and todate filled in, but for coins dated to their precise year of minting it is quite common that only the fromdate field has been filled to designate said year. In addition periodFromName and periodToName fields may indicate if a find potentially falls into more than one historical period: These fields are worth paying attention to as even in the historical period most non-numismatic PAS finds are dated to a dated-range of a few centuries, and therefore a considerable number straddle period boundaries.

The fields subperiodTo and subperiodFrom may give further information on sub-periodisation early, middle, late but these are not filled in consistently.

Chivalry, Rivalry, Revelry

Chronology and dating As most genealogists know, dating conventions in English documents can cause problems even as late as the 18th century. These problems can become quite complicated in medieval documents. For example, medieval charters are commonly dated by specifying the week day, a nearby religious feast day, and the year of the monarch’s reign – a convention which clearly has little in common with the modern system of day, month and calendar year.

Although the process of dating medieval documents can seem off-putting, fortunately most of the necessary resources are available on the internet. Today’s genealogist can, with care, date a document at the push of a button, where yesterday’s had to hunt laboriously through tables. For further details, an excellent published guide is Cheney’s Handbook of Dates for Students of English History, to which I am indebted for much of the following information.

Spices were an important commodity in the Middle Ages with an allure and mythology dating back to Antiquity. Spices were expensive and a sign of status in the Roman Empire.

History[ edit ] The true origin of the blancmange is obscure, but it is believed by some that it was a result of the Arab introduction of rice and almonds in early medieval Europe. Variants of the dish appear in numerous other European cultures with closely related names including Biancomangiare in Italy and Manjar Blanco in Spain. Additionally, related or similar dishes have existed in other areas of Europe under different names, such as the 13th-century Danish hwit moos “white mush” , and the Anglo-Norman blanc desirree “white Syrian dish” ; Dutch calijs from Latin colare, “to strain” was known in English as cullis and in French as coulis, and was based on cooked and then strained poultry.

The Danish work may be a translation of a German cookbook, which is believed to have been based on a Latin or Romance vernacular manuscript from the 12th century or even earlier. It occurs in countless variations from recipe collections from all over Europe. It is mentioned in the prologue to Geoffrey Chaucer ‘s Canterbury Tales [4] and in an early 15th-century cookbook written by the chefs of Richard II.

Almond milk and fish were used as substitutes for the other animal products on fast days and Lent. It was also often flavored with spices like saffron or cinnamon and the chicken could be exchanged for various types of fowl, like quail or partridge. Spices were often used in recipes of the later Middle Ages since they were considered highly prestigious. The whitedish was one of the dishes found in recipe collections all over Europe and one of the few truly international dishes of medieval and early modern Europe.

Opening the Medieval Stone Coffin Found at the Richard III Burial Site

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